December 2016 Science Bulletin: EDCs affect fetal development, may raise obesity risk; more detail on the “DOHaD Hypothesis”

December 15, 2016 at 4:31 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment

December 2016 Science Bulletin

EDCs, fetal development | Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation: A European Meta-Analysis. Eleven percent of pregnant women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p < 0.05) with the other outcomes; women holding job titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame retardants were at higher risk for longer length of gestation.

EDCs, obesity, neurodevelopment | Early-life exposure to EDCs: role in childhood obesity and neurodevelopment. The available epidemiological evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to several of these ubiquitous EDCs is associated with adverse neurobehaviour (BPA and phthalates) and excess adiposity or increased risk of obesity and/or overweight (PFAS). Quantifying the effects of EDC mixtures, improving EDC exposure assessment, reducing bias from confounding, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability and elucidating the presence and nature of sexually dimorphic EDC effects would enable stronger inferences to be made from epidemiological studies than currently possible.

Air pollution, asthma | Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of development of childhood asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall risk estimates from the meta-analyses showed statistically significant associations for BC, NO2, PM2.5, PM10 exposures and risk of asthma development. Our findings support the hypothesis that childhood exposure to TRAP contributes to their development of asthma. Future meta-analyses would benefit from greater standardization of study methods including exposure assessment harmonization, outcome harmonization, confounders’ harmonization and the inclusion of all important confounders in individual studies.

DOHaD Hypothesis | Review of developmental origins of health and disease publications in environmental epidemiology. We conducted a scoping literature review to describe the human evidence for the DOHaD hypothesis and to identify, 1) where there may be reasonable data to draw conclusions, and 2) areas warranting further research. Using PubMed and Web of Science we identified 425 publications through 2014 that met our criteria for evaluating the DOHaD hypothesis in environmental epidemiology. These publications covered 60 different chemicals. The majority of publications focused on neurological/cognitive outcomes, followed by cancer, and respiratory outcomes.

BPA, obesity, diabetes | Urinary bisphenol A is associated with insulin resistance and obesity in reproductive-aged women. Urinary BPA levels were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. MEHHP, MEOHP and MnBP were not associated with any of the above parameters. In the multiple regression analysis, the BPA levels were significantly associated with BMI and waist circumference after adjusting for age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values were also significantly related to urinary BPA concentration after adjusting for confounding variables. Metabolically unhealthy women exhibited significantly higher levels of urinary BPA (P = 0·01) compared to metabolically healthy women.

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