March 2016 Science Bulletin: BPA affects spermatogenesis; systematic review associates pesticide exposure with diabetes

March 15, 2016 at 1:47 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment

March 2016 Science Bulletin

BPA, male fertility (human) | Associations of bisphenol A and polychlorinated biphenyls with spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in two biological fluids from men attending an infertility clinic. BPA may negatively contribute to the final state of sperm quality. Moreover, our data indicate that BPA influences human gonadal and adrenal steroidogenesis at various steps. Environmental levels of PCBs negatively correlated with androgen levels, but surprisingly without negative effects on sperm quality.

Pesticides, neurodegenerative diseases (human) | Association between background exposure to organochlorine pesticides and the risk of cognitive impairment: A prospective study that accounts for weight change. This prospective study demonstrates that background exposure to OC pesticides are linked to the risk of developing cognitive impairment in elderly. The role of the chronic exposure to low dose OC pesticides in the development of dementia should be further evaluated in other populations.

Pesticides, diabetes (human) | Exposure to pesticides and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests an association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides and Type 2 diabetes.

Phthalates, premature birth health complications (human) | Increased levels of phthalates in very low birth weight infants with septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Significantly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were seen in infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with late onset septicemia or BPD. A significant positive correlation between the duration of respiratory support and DEHP metabolites was observed (p0.01) at 2.9 weeks of age. Birth weight was negatively associated with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with septicemia or BPD experienced prolonged exposure from medical equipment containing phthalates, with subsequent higher levels of phthalate metabolites detected.

Flame retardants, hazard profiles (review) | Environmental and health screening profiles of phosphorous flame retardants. This is a survey that identifies phosphorous flame retardants and screens them for human and environmental health hazards, to aid substitution decisions in a European REACH context by companies using flame retardants. (Note that there is often very little hard data about the hazards posed by these chemicals, and many of the FRs assessed have high hazard ratings.)

Obesogens (review) | Obesogens: an emerging threat to public health. In this review, we discuss the history of obesogen discovery from its origins in reproductive biology to its latest role in the transgenerational inheritance of obesity in mice. We discuss the development of adipose tissue in an embryo, maintenance of adipocyte number in adults, how EDC disruption programs stem cells to preferentially make more adipocytes, the mechanisms by which chemicals can permanently alter the germline epigenome, and whether there are barriers to EDCs in the gametes.

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