May 2015 Science Bulletin #2: BPA impacts reproduction of generations of mice; BTEX as EDC below current “safe” levels; and more

May 13, 2015 at 1:23 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment

May Science Bulletin #2:
Non-human, policy and
methodological research

Benzene etc., endocrine disruption | New Look at BTEX: Are Ambient Levels a Problem? The reviewers identified epidemiological studies assessing the noncancer health impacts of ambient level BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) exposure (i.e., nonoccupational) and discussed how the health conditions may be hormonally mediated. This analysis suggests that all four chemicals may have endocrine disrupting properties at exposure levels below reference concentrations (i.e. “safe” levels) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

BPA, diabetes | Bisphenol-A Treatment During Pregnancy in Mice: A New Window of Susceptibility for the Development of Diabetes in Mothers Later in Life . The researchers show that several months after delivery, mothers treated with the bisphenol-A (BPA) during gestation, at environmentally relevant doses, exhibit profound glucose intolerance and altered insulin sensitivity as well as increased body weight. These mice presented a decreased insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro together with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass.

Biomonitoring | Identification and Prioritization of Relationships between Environmental Stressors and Adverse Human Health Impacts. Due to the computational efficiency of the Frequent Itemset Mining method, all chemicals and health effects can be considered in a single analysis. The resulting list provides a comprehensive summary of the chemical/health co-occurrences from NHANES that are higher than expected by chance. This information enables ranking and prioritization on chemicals or health effects of interest for evaluation of published results and design of future studies.

Biomonitoring data, risk assessment | Uses of NHANES Biomarker Data for Chemical Risk Assessment: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. This article highlights: 1) the extent to which U.S. NHANES chemical biomarker data have been evaluated, 2) groups of chemicals that have been studied, 3) data analysis approaches and challenges, and 4) opportunities for using these data to inform risk assessments. Best practices for analysis and interpretation must be defined and adopted to allow the full potential of the NHANES to be realized.

Pharmaceuticals, risk assessment | Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals. This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency’s guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. They concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option.

BPA, reproduction | The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05μg/kg/day) and BPA (50μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged.

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