Integrating science into decision-making; breast cancer, epigenenitics and BPA; and more / August 2014 science digest #2

August 12, 2014 at 11:48 am | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment
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August Science Digest #2
Non-human and policy research

Integrating evidence into decision-making | The Navigation Guide Systematic Review Methodology: A Rigorous and Transparent Method for Translating Environmental Health Science into Better Health Outcomes. The Navigation Guide methodology builds on best practices in research synthesis in evidence-based medicine and environmental health. Key points of departure from current methods of expert-based narrative review prevalent in environmental health include: an a priori protocol; standardized and transparent documentation including expert judgment; a comprehensive search strategy; assessment of “risk of bias”; and separation of the science from values and preferences.

In an additional editorial the value of these efforts for improving the reproducibility of research relevant to public health policy-making are described.

Breast cancer, BPA | Prenatal Exposure to BPA Alters the Epigenome of the Rat Mammary Gland and Increases the Propensity to Neoplastic Development. Study showing that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene expression patterns, changes which may contribute to the development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions that manifest during adulthood.

The lead researcher told Chemical Watch that the study suggests the causal link between BPA exposure and cancer is not linear but rather a complex constellation of anomalies, all contributing to BC risk. The changes seen “appear to reflect developmental aberrations” as a result of BPA exposure, rather than actual “causal events” which give rise to carcinogenesis in adulthood.

Mixtures, Risk Assessment | Cumulative Health Risk Assessment: Finding New Ideas and Escaping from the Old Ones. This review examines the implementation of effects-based CRA, which emphasizes evaluating health risks in a defined community or population, as opposed to stressor-based approaches, which focus on determining health risks for a defined set of stressors.

Obesity, POPs | Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring. A study suggesting that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in mice, which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

Obesity, Flame Retardants | Ligand Binding and Activation of PPARγ by Firemaster 550: Effects on Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis in Vitro . A study which is important because of the role of the PPARγ receptor in distribution of fat cells during development. These findings suggest that FM550 components bind and activate PPARγ, initiating adipocyte differentiation and antagonising osteogenesis. The study authors believe triphenyl phosphate (TPP) to be the Firemaster component which contributes the most to these effects.

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