May 2014 Science Digest #2: Evidence integration, triclosan risks vs. benefits, pesticides and hearing loss

May 23, 2014 at 10:21 am | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment
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EDCs, Breast Cancer | Progression of breast cancer cells was enhanced by endocrine disrupting chemicals, triclosan and octylphenol, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway in cellular and mouse xenograft models. Study suggesting that two endocrine disrupting chemicals, triclosan (TCS) and octylphenol (OP), may adversely affect human health by promoting breast cancer progression via an estrogen receptor mediated signalling cascade.

Antimicrobials, Risks vs. Benefits | On the Need and Speed of Regulating Triclosan and Triclocarban in the United States. A new feature article published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology presents evidence that decades of widespread use of antimicrobials has left US consumers with no measurable benefits.

EDCs, Obesity | Our stolen figures: The interface of sexual differentiation, endocrine disruptors, maternal programming, and energy balance. The prevalence of adult obesity has risen markedly in the last quarter of the 20th century and has not been reversed in this century. Less well known is the fact that obesity prevalence has risen in domestic, laboratory, and feral animals, suggesting that all of these species have been exposed to obesogenic factors present in the environment. This review highlights the points at which maternal programming, sexual differentiation and endocrine disruption might dovetail to influence global changes in energy balancing traits.

Evidence integration for chemical risk assessment | Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for Literature-Based Environmental Health Science Assessments. Presented here is a 7-step framework for systematic review and evidence integration for reaching hazard identification conclusions: problem formulation and protocol development, search for and select studies for inclusion, extract data from studies, assess the quality or risk of bias of individual studies, rate the confidence in the body of evidence, translate the confidence ratings into levels of evidence, and integrate the information from different evidence streams (human, animal, and “other relevant data” including mechanistic or in vitro studies) to develop hazard identification conclusions.

Pesticides, Hearing Loss | Effects of potential neurotoxic pesticides on hearing loss: A review. As a whole, available data indicate a possible ototoxic action of pesticides, but alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out, also considering some confounders, such as the co-exposure to noise. Therefore, further studies are necessary in order to clarify the association between pesticides exposure and hearing loss. While awaiting more evidence, for precautionary action we recommend considering pesticides as possible ototoxic agents, in particular for vulnerable targets, such as pregnant women and children during early development.

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