Research digest (Dec 2013): Recent highlights in human and other toxicological research

December 12, 2013 at 5:42 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment

Recent human research

Pesticides, Endometriosis | Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study. In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women.

BPA, Male Fertility | Are urinary bisphenol A levels in men related to semen quality and embryo development after medically assisted reproduction? BPA was detected in 98 percent of the urine samples tested, with an average concentration of 1.55 nanograms per milliliter. The researchers found a statistically significant association between an increase in urinary BPA concentration and lower total sperm count, sperm concentration and sperm vitality.

Phthalates, Premature Birth (JAMA Pediatrics) | Environmental Phthalate Exposure and Preterm Birth. previous research has linked phthalates to shorter pregnancies and lower birth weights. Here, women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy showed significantly increased odds of delivering preterm.

PFCs, Delayed Puberty | Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction. In adjusted regression analyses, daughters exposed to higher levels of PFOA in utero had a 5.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.3; 9.3) months later age of menarche compared with the reference group of lower PFOA.

Phthalates, Learning Disability | Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in U.S. children, 6-15 years. Cross-sectional evidence from US NHANES data that certain phthalates are associated with increased odds of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and both ADD and learning difficulties.

Organophosphate Pesticides, NeurdevelopmentA systematic review of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure. High variability in epidemiological designs and methodologies used for assessing exposure and outcome made comparisons difficult between studies difficult. Prenatal and to a lesser extent postnatal exposure to OPs may contribute to neurodevelopmental and behavioural deficits in preschool and school children.

Other research of interest

BPA, Harm Prevention (Lancet Diab & Endo) | Protecting the human fetus against effects of bisphenol A. Two environmental health researchers advocate labelling of food and drink packaging for chemical constituents, to “at least have the opportunity to consumer food and drinks that are not contaminated”.

BPA, Diabetes | Transmaternal bisphenol A exposure accelerates diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice. Transmaternal BPA exposure, in utero and through lactation, accelerated the spontaneous diabetes development in non-obese diabetic mice. This acceleration appeared to be related to early life modulatory effects on the immune system, resulting in adverse effects later in life.

BPA, Migraine | Exposure to Bisphenol A Exacerbates Migraine-Like Behaviors in a Multibehavior Model of Rat Migraine. Working on the hypothesis that oestrogen exposure increases migraine risk, this rat study suggests that BPA exacerbates migraine-like behavior and alters expression of estrogen and nociception-related genes.

Cumulative Exposure, Endocrine Disruption | Co-exposure to Phytoestrogens and Bisphenol A mimic estrogenic effects in an additive manner. Using statistical modeling we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor-prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that co-exposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.

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